Where assets are “located” has a significant impact from both a tax perspective and an asset protection perspective. Assets can be placed/located in retirement accounts, taxable accounts, life insurance policies, annuities, trusts, corporations, and LLC’s. This can be a complex subject overall. We will briefly discuss here a comparison between ROTH retirement accounts and traditional retirement accounts, a comparison between retirement accounts and taxable accounts, as well as some discussion of life insurance policies and annuities.
Retirement accounts – ROTH accounts versus traditional accounts
Assets in retirement accounts typically accumulate and grow tax deferred (in the case of traditional 401K, 403B and IRA accounts) and in the case of ROTH 401K and ROTH IRA accounts can be withdrawn tax free. For this reason, a case can be made for placing assets which have the capacity to generate the largest long term gains (such as small cap stocks) into ROTH accounts, while placing the assets which are lower risk and do not have the capacity to generate large long term gains (such as U.S. treasury bonds) into traditional accounts. A careful analysis should be done of the tax bracket now and the expected tax bracket during retirement.
Taxable accounts versus retirement accounts
As taxable accounts do not have any tax deferral features, a case can be made for placing growth, non dividend paying assets into these accounts, and placing dividend paying assets into retirement accounts and reinvesting those dividends and interest. This way, the investor can benefit from the long term capital gains taxes which are typically lower than the income taxes which are levied on dividends and interest.
Annuities versus taxable accounts
Assets in annuities grow tax deferred, with the basis determined by the amount contributed to the annuity. For this reason, a case can be made that it is advantageous to place dividend-paying assets into annuity contracts while placing non-dividend paying, long term appreciating growth assets outside of annuity contracts. This way, dividend generating assets can accumulate and grow tax deferred inside the annuity contract, and the investor can benefit from the lower capital gains taxes on growth assets held outside the annuity contract.